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Margins
India ICC has adopted SPAN® (Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk) methodology or any other system for the purpose of real time initial margin computation. The SPAN methodology helps to provide an integrated view of the risk involved in the portfolio of each individual client. The initial margin will be deducted upfront on an on-line real-time basis from the available liquid assets deposited by the Clearing Member with India ICC.
The margins levied to members will be levied and collected in USD.

Initial Margin

India ICC has adopted SPAN® methodology or any other system for the purpose of real time initial margin computation. The SPAN® methodology helps to provide an integrated view of the risk involved in the portfolio of each individual client. The initial margin is deducted upfront on an on-line real-time basis from the available liquid assets deposited by the Clearing Member with India ICC. Initial Margin requirement is based on a worst scenario loss of a portfolio of an individual client comprising of his positions in the options and futures contracts across different underlying and maturities for various scenarios of price and volatility changes. The initial margin requirements is set to provide coverage of at least a 99% single-tailed confidence interval of the estimated distribution of future exposure over a one-day time horizon. The initial margin requirement is netted at the client level and calculated on gross basis at the Trading/Clearing Member level. The initial margin requirement for the proprietary position of Trading / Clearing Member would also be on net basis.

Computation of Initial Margin - Overall Portfolio Margin Requirement

The computation of worst scenario loss has two stages. The first is the valuation of the portfolio under the various scenarios of price changes. At the second stage, these scenario contract values would be applied to the actual portfolio positions to compute the portfolio values and the initial margin. The scenario contract values are updated at the start of the business day, then every 1.5 hours and finally at the end of the business day. The latest available scenario contract values would be applied to member/client portfolios on a real time basis.

The total margin requirements for a member, for a portfolio of futures and options contract are computed as follows:

i. SPAN® will add up the Scanning Risk Charges and the Intra-commodity Spread Charges.
ii. It will compare this figure (as per i above) to the Short Option Minimum charge
iii.SPAN® will select the larger of the two values between (i) and (ii)
iv. Total SPAN® Margin requirement is equal to SPAN® Risk Requirement (as per iii above), less the 'net option value', which is mark to market value of difference in long option positions and short option positions

Risk parameters, generated, based on the updated details is be available on the India INX website. (https://www.indiainx.com/markets/RiskParameter.aspx)

Price Scan Range

Price Scan Range (PSR) is a type of SPAN® parameters used for calculating margin requirement in SPAN® framework. PSR amount shows the minimum margin requirement when you hold 1 short/long position of Futures contract, provided, however, when you hold positions across multiple contract months, and/or combinations of Futures and Option contracts, minimum margin requirement can be increased/decreased.

The price scan range is the probable price change over a one-day period and is referred as standard deviation sigma. The standard deviation (volatility estimate) is computed using the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Method (EWMA).

The price scan range (sigma value) and volatility scan range are specified. The estimate at the end of time period t (σt) is estimated using the volatility estimate at the end of the previous time period. i.e. as at the end of t-1 time period (σt-1), and the return (rt) observed in the futures market during the time period t.

The volatility estimated at the end of the day's trading would be used in calculating the initial margin calls at the end of the same day.

The formula is as under:

S

Where
  • λ is a parameter which determines how rapidly volatility estimates changes. The value of λ is currently fixed at 0.94.
  • σ (sigma) means the standard deviation of daily returns in the futures market.
  • The "return" is defined as the logarithmic return: rt = ln (St/St-1) where St is the price at time t.

Volatility Scan Range

The Volatility Scan is the amount by which the implied volatility is changed in each risk array scenario. Just as there is a set price scan range, there is a set Volatility scan range.

SPAN® calculates the probable premium value at each price scan point for volatility up and volatility down scenario. It then compares this probable premium value to the theoretical premium value (based on last closing value of the underlying) to determine profit or loss.

The sigma σ would be the standard deviation σ of daily logarithmic (ln) returns of futures price.

The price scan range and volatility scan range ("VSR") for generating the scenarios would be as below or such other percentage as may be specified by India ICC from time to time.

The current PSR & VSR values for the various product types are given as below:


Product Type Price Scan Range Volatility Scan Range
Index Futures and Options Three standard deviation (3 sigma) or such other price scan range for the underlying as may be specified from time to time. 4% or such other percentage as may be specified from time to time
Single Stock Futures and Options Three and a half standard deviation (3.5 sigma) or such other price scan range for the underlying as may be specified from time to time. 10% or such other percentage as may be specified from time to time
Commodity Futures and Options Three standard deviation (3 sigma) or such other price scan range for the underlying as may be specified from time to time. 4% or such other percentage as may be specified from time to time
Currency Futures and Options Three and a half standard deviation (3.5 sigma) or such other price scan range for the underlying as may be specified from time to time. 3% or such other percentage as may be specified from time to time



Calendar Spread Margins

As SPAN® scans futures prices within a single underlying instrument, it assumes that price moves correlate perfectly across contract months. Since price moves across contract months do not generally exhibit perfect correlation, SPAN® adds a Calendar Spread Charge (also called the Inter-month Spread Charge) to the Scanning Risk Charge associated with each futures and options contract. To put it in a different way, the Calendar Spread Charge covers the calendar (inter-month etc.) basis risk that may exist for portfolios containing futures and options with different expirations.

A futures position at one expiry month which is hedged by an offsetting position at a different maturity would be treated as a calendar spread. The benefit for a calendar spread would continue till expiry of the near month contract. The calendar spread margin is deducted from the liquid net worth of the clearing member on an online, real time basis.

For each futures and options contract, SPAN® identifies the delta associated with each futures and option position, for a contract month. It then forms spreads using these deltas across contract months. For each spread formed, SPAN® assesses a specific charge per spread which constitutes the Calendar Spread Charge.

The margin for options calendar spread would be the same as specified for futures calendar spread. The margin would be calculated on the basis of delta Δ of the portfolio in each month. A portfolio consisting of a near month option with a delta Δ of 100 and a far month option with a delta Δ of –100 would bear a spread charge equal to the spread charge for a portfolio which is long 100 near month futures and short 100 far month futures.

The calendar spread margins for various product types are given as below:

Product Type Calendar Spread Charge
Index Futures and Options 0.5%(number of spread months) subject to a minimum margin of 1% and a maximum margin of 2%
Single Stock Futures and Options 0.5%(number of spread months) subject to a minimum margin 1% and a maximum margin of 3%
Commodity Futures and Options 0.5%(number of spread months) subject to a minimum margin of 1% and a maximum margin of 2%
Currency Futures and Options 0.25%(number of spread months) subject to a minimum margin 1% and a maximum margin of 2%


Inter – Commodity Spread Margin benefits

The inter-commodity spread margin benefits which would be applicable to contracts traded on the India International Exchange (IFSC) Limited:

Leg Delta A Leg A Contract Code Leg A Leg Delta B Leg B Contract Code Leg B Credit Rate
1 Sensex Sensex 3 Sensex 50 Sensex 50 75.00%
1 Gold Gold 2 Silver Silver 55.00%
4 INRUSD INRUSD 7 USDINR USDINR 90.00%

Short Option Margin

Deep-out-of-the-money short options may show zero or minimal Scan Risk given the price and volatility moves in the 16 market scenarios, yet still present risk in the event that these options move closer-to-the-money or in-the-money, thereby generating potentially large losses. Hence a Short Option Minimum Margin is applied to each product to account for this potential exposure. The Short Option Minimum Margin is calculated on the Notional Value of all short options.

SPAN® assesses a minimum margin for each short option position in the portfolio called the Short Option Minimum charge, which is set by the India ICC. The Short Option Minimum charge serves as a minimum charge towards margin requirements for each short position in an option contract.

For example, suppose that the Short Option Minimum charge is 50 dollar per short position. A portfolio containing 20 short options will have a margin requirement of at least 1,000 dollars, even if the scanning risk charge plus the inter-month spread charge on the position is 500 dollars only.

Exposure Margin

Exposure margin covers the expected loss in situations that go beyond those envisaged in the 99% value at risk estimates used in the VaR margin. It is on the mark to market value of the gross open positions or as may be specified from time to time and is deducted upfront from the available liquid assets of the clearing member on an on line, real time basis.

The exposure margin is deducted from the liquid assets of the clearing member on an online, real time basis.

Crystallised Loss Margin

India ICC blocks real time margin for open positions arising out of trades in all the products. India ICC collects the intra-day crystallized loss margin (CLM) from the free collateral on an online real-time basis only for those transactions which are subject to upfront margining. CLM is calculated and collected only when a member takes an offsetting position. An offsetting position requires assuming an opposite position in regard to the original outstanding position. For calculating Crystallised loss/ profit, such offset trades would be only to the extent of the existing open positions. The CLM will be released at the end of the day when Mark to Market ("MTM") Margin obligation is levied. The crystallised gain may be used to offset subsequent crystallised losses at the client level, to the extent of such client level crystallised losses. If the crystallised gains exceed the crystallised losses, no benefit accrues towards the available collateral. The Crystallised Loss will be set off against Crystallised profit only on the Client Level. On the Clearing Member/ Trading Member Level, the Crystallised Profit is ignored. The crystallised loss margin will be added in total margin requirements and in case the total margin requirements exceeds the threshold of margin percentage applicable for risk reduction mode (RRM) then the member is put in RRM.

Members are required to collect initial margins, exposure margins and premium from their client/constituents on an upfront basis. It is mandatory for all members to report details of such margins collected to INDIA ICC/INDIA INX. The procedure for reporting of margins is detailed separately.

Risk Reduction Mode

All Members are put in Risk Reduction Mode (RRM), when collateral / trading limit utilization of member reaches 90%. Following features are applicable during Risk Reduction Mode:

  • All unexecuted orders are cancelled.
  • Fresh orders which reduce open position are accepted
  • Fresh orders which increase open position are checked for margin sufficiency.
  • If sufficient margin is not available, such orders are rejected.
  • Fresh orders can be placed for immediate or cancel (IOC) only.